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Radical Translations

  • Date
  • False: false attribution such as false place of imprint or false date
  • Fictional place: false imprint contains a fictional, invented place of imprint or date
  • Form: type or genre of writing.
  • Female
  • Male
  • Language
  • Noble: person was born noble.
  • Place
  • Role: the main role of a person or organization in relation to a resource.
  • Subject: content, theme, or topic of a work.
  • Uncertainty: information could not be verified.

Confédération des Amis de la Vérité (Cercle Social)



The Confédération des Amis de la Vérité, or Cercle Social, was founded in October 1790. At the head of the organization was a steering committee called the Directoire du Cercle Social, composed of a small group of "patriotic writers". It met weekly in the Circus Arena in the Palais Royal.

Its four chosen secretaries were: Bertrand Barere, Luigi Pio, Jean Lapoype and Jean-François Michel.

See Gary Kates, 'The Cercle Social, the Girondins, and the French Revolution' (1985, Princeton University Press), which includes an Appendix (A) listing known members.